By directing the US delegation before the Committee to acknowledge the extraterritorial reach of US obligations under the Convention against Torture, you would be making a valuable contribution toward affirming and strengthening the global ban on torture and other ill-treatment. However, to ensure that such practices are not adopted by future administrations, it is critical that the United States also abandon the distorted interpretations of international law through which the George W. Bush administration sought to justify torture and ill-treatment and transfers to similar abuse. Such a position will make it harder for key US allies, many of whom recognize extraterritorial application of the Convention against Torture, to cooperate with the US on international security matters.
Wikipedia has related information at C programming language C is the most commonly used programming language for writing operating systems. The first operating system written in C is Unix.
Not only is C the language of operating systems, it is the precursor and inspiration for almost all of the most popular high-level languages available today. By way of analogy, let's say that you were going to be learning Spanish, Italian, French, or Romanian. Do you think knowing Latin would be helpful?
Just as Latin was the basis of all of those languages, knowing C will enable you to understand and appreciate an entire family of programming languages built upon the traditions of C. Knowledge of C enables freedom.
Why C, and not assembly language? Different processors are programmed using different Assembly languages and having to choose and learn only one of them is too arbitrary. In fact, one of the main strengths of C is that it combines universality and portability across various computer architectures while retaining most of the control of the hardware provided by assembly language.
Each of these devices has its own assembly language that is completely incompatible with the assembly language of any other. Assembly, while extremely powerful, is simply too difficult to program large applications and hard to read or interpret in a logical way.
C is a compiled language, which creates fast and efficient executable files. So is it any wonder that C is such a popular language? Like toppling dominoes, the next generation of programs follows the trend of its ancestors.
Operating systems designed in C always have system libraries designed in C. Those system libraries are in turn used to create higher-level libraries like OpenGLor GTKand the designers of those libraries often decide to use the language the system libraries used. Application developers use the higher-level libraries to design word processors, games, media players and the like.
Many of them will choose to program in the language that the higher-level library uses. And the pattern continues on and on and on Why C, and not another language?
C has a big codebase for low level applications. It is a stable and mature language which is unlikely to disappear for a long time and has been ported to most, if not all, platforms. One powerful reason is memory allocation.
Unlike most programming languages, C allows the programmer to write directly to memory.
Key constructs in C such as structs, pointers and arrays are designed to structure and manipulate memory in an efficient, machine-independent fashion. In particular, C gives control over the memory layout of data structures.
Moreover dynamic memory allocation is under the control of the programmer which also means that memory deallocation has to be done by the programmer. Languages like Java and Perl shield the programmer from having to manage most details of memory allocation and pointers except for memory leaks and some other forms of excess memory usage.
This can be useful since dealing with memory allocation when building a high-level program is a highly error-prone process. However, when dealing with low-level code such as the part of the OS that controls a device, C provides a uniform, clean interface.
These capabilities just do not exist in most other languages. While Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby may be powerful and support many features not provided by default in C, they are not normally implemented in their own language.
Rather, most such languages initially relied on being written in C or another high-performance programming languageand would require their implementation be ported to a new platform before they can be used.
As with all programming languages, whether you want to choose C over another high-level language is a matter of opinion and both technical and business requirements could dictate which language is required.U.N.
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The CIA put AIDS into experimental Hepatitis B vaccines, an experiment that took place in Manhattan in the US. Information provided by: Preserve Craig of Craig County, VA.
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