The Teaching of Values By Dr.
When religious leaders speak out on moral topics, their opinions are often treated with special deference. They are regarded as moral experts.
This raises the question of whether morality depends in some way on religion. Many philosophers have held that it does. John Lockefor example, argued that atheists could not be trusted to be moral because they would not consider themselves obliged even by solemn oaths, much less by ordinary promises.
The answer to this question may be of considerable practical importance. If morality does depend on religion, the process of secularization, in the course of which religious belief and practice wither away, seems to pose a serious threat to morality.
At one time many social theorists were confident that secularization was inevitable in modern and postmodern societies. Experience has undermined this confidence.
Secularization no longer appears to be an inevitable consequence of modernization. Moreover, the process seems to occur at different rates in different modern societies. Thus secularization is more advanced in some Western European societies than it is in the United States.
Nevertheless, it seems reasonable to be concerned about whether morality will decline to the extent that modern societies become more secular if it is the case that morality depends on religion.
This entry discusses several ways in which morality may depend on religion. It considers causal, conceptual, epistemological, and metaphysical dependency relations.
It also explores the possibility that morality and religion may come into conflict. But a fruitful discussion of how two things are related must rely on some understanding of what those two things are.
Hence the entry begins with characterizations of domains of morality and religion. Morality and Religion Circumscribed Understood in broad terms, morality consists of answers to the general normative question of how one should live one's life.
It covers a wide range of topics related to the conduct of human life. Morality concerns actions that should and should not be performed and rules of conduct that should and should not be followed. It also comprehends motives for actions that people should and should not have and character traits or habits that people should and should not try to develop.
Another subject of moral concern is ideals of saintliness or heroism to which some people may properly aspire, even though not everyone is called upon to live up to these ideals.
Yet another subject is social and political arrangements that people should and should not strive to create or to sustain. Thus understood, morality consists of a diverse array beliefs and practices, and it is probably not possible to give an illuminating definition of its scope. Philosophers often say that the realm of morality in this broad sense coincides with the realm of the ethical.
When philosophers reflect on the contents of the ethical, they find it useful to distinguish within it two domains, each characterized by a distinctive family of fundamental concepts. One is the axiological domain.
Its basic concepts are goodness, badness, and indifference. The other is the deontological domain. Its basic concepts are requirement obligationpermission rightnessand prohibition wrongness. Duty is the chief subject matter of the deontological domain.
Some philosophers—Bernard Williams, for example—have proposed that morality be conceived narrowly as restricted to the deontological domain. On this conception, the domain of morality is a proper subdomain of the realm of the ethical.
Discussions of whether morality depends on religion frequently focus exclusively on the deontological domain. It is not hard to see why this occurs. Deontology consists of a system of requirements, permissions, and prohibitions.
It is structurally similar to systems of law. Hence it is natural to think of deontology as the domain of moral law. Once this way of thinking has been adopted, the question arises as to whether moral law's binding force depends on the authority of a divine lawgiver.One can recite a litany of issues that are currently plaguing our society but none more clearly illustrates the diminishment of moral judgment and value than the .
Abortion’s Morality and the Candidates. It is a scary, painful, difficult, procedure. We will always question its morality, because we feel that there is a difference in animal life and human life.
I’m simply pointing out that the question of whether abortion should be legally banned is not the same question as whether abortion is. Morality can be objective by being "based on facts" or "based on observation or experience" – observation, experience and facts from psychology, sociology, anthropology and neuroscience – some of which are noted in my answer to Question 1.
Morality can be objective by "marked by honesty and freedom from bias," which is a fundamental feature of the scientific method for the scientific disciplines . I raise the question of whether morality is biologically or culturally determined.
The question of whether the moral sense is biologically determined may refer either to the capacity for ethics (i.e., the proclivity to judge human actions as either right or wrong), or to the moral norms accepted by human beings for guiding their actions.
Morality of Abortion Essay; Morality of Abortion Essay. Abortion Is Murder Essay As well as give a brief history on abortion and a look at the laws that govern this issue not only here at home but around the world.
Morality without God This question begins by assuming morals were created entirely by God and not just approved of by God. Morality is closely associated with religion in the minds of many people.
When religious leaders speak out on moral topics, their opinions are often treated with special deference. They are regarded as moral experts. This raises the question of whether morality depends in some way on religion.