Is fighting a hard battle.
Describe the precursors to the establishment of the science of psychology.
Identify key individuals and events in the history of American psychology. Describe the rise of professional psychology in America.
Introduction It is always a difficult question to ask, where to begin to tell the story of the history of psychology. Some would start with ancient Greece; others would look to a demarcation in the late 19th century when the science of psychology was formally proposed and instituted.
These two perspectives, and all that is in between, are appropriate for describing a history of psychology. For the purposes of this module, we will examine the development of psychology in America and use the midth century as our starting point.
For the sake of convenience, we refer to this as a history of modern psychology.
The earliest records of a psychological experiment go all the way back to the Pharaoh Psamtik I of Egypt in the 7th Century B. Neithsabes, CC0 Public Domain, https: The history of psychology also provides The history of psychology from ancient greece.
Rather than a dry collection of names and dates, the history of psychology tells us about the important intersection of time and place that defines who we are. Consider what happens when you meet someone for the first time.
Whether you are seeing a physician, talking with a counselor, or applying for a job, everything begins with a history. The same is true for studying the history of psychology; getting a history of the field helps to make sense of where we are and how we got here.
A Prehistory of Psychology Precursors to American psychology can be found in philosophy and physiology. Philosophers such as John Locke — and Thomas Reid — promoted empiricismthe idea that all knowledge comes from experience.
The work of Locke, Reid, and others emphasized the role of the human observer and the primacy of the senses in defining how the mind comes to acquire knowledge. In American colleges and universities in the early s, these principles were taught as courses on mental and moral philosophy.
Most often these courses taught about the mind based on the faculties of intellect, will, and the senses Fuchs, Physiology and Psychophysics Philosophical questions about the nature of mind and knowledge were matched in the 19th century by physiological investigations of the sensory systems of the human observer.
German physiologist Hermann von Helmholtz — measured the speed of the neural impulse and explored the physiology of hearing and vision. His work indicated that our senses can deceive us and are not a mirror of the external world. Such work showed that even though the human senses were fallible, the mind could be measured using the methods of science.
In all, it suggested that a science of psychology was feasible.
This was not a new idea; philosophers like John Locke had written extensively on the topic, and in the 19th century, philosophical speculation about the nature of mind became subject to the rigors of science.
The question of the relationship between the mental experiences of the senses and the material external reality was investigated by a number of German researchers including Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner.
Wilhelm Wundt is considered one of the founding figures of modern psychology. Wundt helped to establish the field of experimental psychology by serving as a strong promoter of the idea that psychology could be an experimental field and by providing classes, textbooks, and a laboratory for training students.
Inhe joined the faculty at the University of Leipzig and quickly began to make plans for the creation of a program of experimental psychology.
Inhe complemented his lectures on experimental psychology with a laboratory experience: The response to the new science was immediate and global. Wundt attracted students from around the world to study the new experimental psychology and work in his lab.
Students were trained to offer detailed self-reports of their reactions to various stimuli, a procedure known as introspection.
The goal was to identify the elements of consciousness. In addition to the study of sensation and perception, research was done on mental chronometry, more commonly known as reaction time.It is considered the Hermetic philosophy of ancient Egypt and Greece.
Trismegistus was known as the "scribe of the gods." hieroglyphics, the ancient writing system of the Egyptians, along with Coptic writing.
The development of Ancient Greek medicine introduced the study of physiology into the history of psychology, proposing that there were physical reasons underlying many mental ailments. Chief amongst these was the Father of Medicine, Hippocrates, who proposed that epilepsy had a physical cause and was not some curse sent by the fickle Greek Gods. The ancient Greek philosophers also put forward the view that contradiction is a permanent element in the world and because of it the world is influx all the time. This means that every time a. Diagnosing Mental Illness in Ancient Greece and Rome history and director of the Center for the Ancient Mediterranean at Columbia University, studies mental illness in the classical world.
In most philosophy and history of psychology textbooks, you . Aug 21, · The Athenian philosopher Plato (c B.C.) is one of the most important figures of the Ancient Greek world and the entire history of Western thought. In . The Hellenistic Age, when Greek ideas but not Greek power dominated the Eastern Mediterranean, is dated from Alexander's death to Rome's conquest of Greece in B.C., but a few threads of Greek thought continued to develop until barbarians began to invade the Roman Empire around A.D.
The development of Ancient Greek medicine introduced the study of physiology into the history of psychology, proposing that there were physical reasons underlying many mental ailments. Chief amongst these was the Father of Medicine, Hippocrates, who proposed that epilepsy had a physical cause and was not some curse sent by the fickle Greek Gods.
History of Psychology By David B. Baker and Heather Sperry. University of Akron, The University of Akron. This module provides an introduction and overview of the historical development of the science and practice of psychology in America.
Aristotle's Psychology and the Influence of Plato. To give Aristotle ( BC - BC) complete credit for being the first thinker to develop a theory of proto-psychology is unfair to some of the other philosophers from Greece and beyond.