In many ways movies are a reflection of the world around us and serve as a good medium to educate, criticize and evaluate what we see around us. For this assignment you need to put on your sociological lens. Over the course of the past couple of weeks we have watched several films.
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Get Access Social Sciences Essay Sample Much of our life, when we stop long enough to think about it, is linked to organizations. We become involved, willingly or not, in a host of relationships and groups that affect our private and public lives.
Organized activities and management have existed thousand of years, for example, the construction of the Egyptian pyramids and the Great Wall of China.
In the past several hundred years, especially in the last century, management of organizations has undergone systematic investigation, acquired a common body of knowledge, and has become a formal discipline of study. Weber was without question the social theorist most central to the emergence and development of organization studies.
Several scholars queried whether there was in fact a single form of bureaucracy, a movement that developed into structural contingency theory and configurational theory, which is one of the major perspectives within organization studies.
The central theme of legitimacy figures in several organizational perspectives, including institutional theory and population ecology.
Weber also connects to those who point to the role of large, complex organizations as significant agents within society, affecting the distribution of power and the allocation of privileges and advantage. While some scholars continue to draw on his work, developing research and theory that extends and refines his ideas, many of those ideas have ossified within the larger community of organizational Social sciences essay.
The split between facts and values that has long been a characteristic of bureaucratic organization raises important questions regarding its sustainability, in the aftermath of corporate scandals and unethical organizational action.
The relationship between instrumental rationality and value-based rationality, to which Weber was one of the first to draw our attention, may need to be rethought. In the history of sociology, Weber is considered one of the main founders and contributors.
Among his many works, he Social sciences essay the nature of bureaucracies to investigate the reasons why they held so much power. He looked at how bureaucracies grew and become stronger along with the industrial revolution.
Weberian ideas about bureaucracy and bureaucratic institutions have been a central thread in the development of management and organization theory Perrow ; Scott Yet, curiously, the work that managers perform in concrete organizational settings has been relatively neglected as a topic of research but see Morrill The last century saw the perfection of the bureaucracy — a form of organization that has been enormously successful and is the result of thousands of years of trial and error evolution.
Max Weber outlined the key characteristics of a bureaucracy: However, they are all inventions — organizations did not always have these features. Today we also think of bureaucracies as inefficient, slow and generally bad. And in fact, bureaucracies did become enormously successful, easily outcompeting other organization forms such as family businesses and adhocracies.
They also did much to introduce concepts of fairness and equality of opportunity into society, having a profound effect on the social structure of nations.
However, bureaucracies are better for some tasks than others.
In particular, bureaucracies are not well-suited to industries in which technology changes rapidly or is not yet well-understood. At the turn of the century Weber began to study the new forms of organization being developed for managing large numbers of people in far-flung and complex activities.
Furthermore, Germany had been an early leader in developing a civil service. At the same time, German industry was beginning to adopt the organizational methods developed in the United States. Surveying this scene, Weber attempted to isolate the elements common to all of these new organizations.
Weber concluded that all these new large-scale organizations were similar. Each was a bureaucracy. Today many of us regard bureaucracy as a dirty word, suggesting red tape, inefficiency, and officiousness. As we shall see, bureaucracies can develop these features, especially if authority is highly centralized.
Let us examine the features that Weber found in bureaucracies. The fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organizations exactly as does the machine with non-mechanical modes of production. For Weber the term bureaucracy was inseparable from the term rationality.
Weber noted additional features of rational bureaucracies that are simple extensions of the four just outlined, To ensure expert management, appointment and promotion are based on merit rather than favoritism, and those appointed treat their positions as full-time, primary careers.
Though Weber argued that in modern economic systems both capitalist and state socialist that one type of rationality—formal rationality—had come to play an increasingly important role, he was careful to emphasize the importance of the three other types of rationality for understanding economic action within modern economic systems.
At the same time, structurationist approaches can usefully extend Weberian analyses of social process by focusing attention on the complex processes by which shifts in forms of rationality occur as well as how they overlap.
Even though Weber did not spend a great deal of time studying processes of rationalization in penetrating detail, he did emphasize the importance of such dynamics. For instance, in one of his most famous passages, Weber In particular, the study of how expert occupations that claim jurisdiction over particular types of knowledge-based work through different types of rationality over time may provide crucial insights into how new kinds of work becomes systematically structured across a wide variety of organizational contexts.
This will not only help to bridge the study of work and organizational fields, but also highlight the important yet underdeveloped connections between classical and contemporary social theory.
Weber claimed that the paradigm of formal rationality was the bureaucracy, and that as such it was the most efficient way of helping people discover and implement optimum means to ends. Weber argues that earlier societies had organizational structures, but they were not as effective as bureaucracy due to several factors:Humanities & Social Sciences Essay Editing.
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The relationship between science and social theory as well as public communication and common sense knowledge shows how public understanding of beliefs could pertain to economics, sociology, politics, science, health and history.
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Evidence is important in social scientific writing because it is used to support or query beliefs. or re-education. is distinctive about essay writing in the social sciences?
There are particular features that characterize social science essays and that relate to what is called the epistemological underpinning of work in this area (that is. NIFH06V.
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