Communicative Language Teaching CLTwhich is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages, emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language.
Task-based language learning, a more recent refinement of Communicative competence in language teaching, has gained considerably in popularity. Shortcomings of structuralism and behaviorism The theories underlying the audiolingual method and the situational language teaching were widely criticized during the s.
Noam Chomsky, for instance, rejected the structuralist view of language and demonstrated that there is a distinction between performance and competence.
The goal of the linguist is to study the linguistic competence native speakers are endowed with.
A shift towards communicative proficiency The increasing interdependency between the European countries necessitated a need for a greater effort to teach adults the principal languages of the continent.
New goals were set in language teaching profession: The paramount importance of communication aspects of language.
The increasing interest in meaningful learning. The growing centrality of the learner in teaching processes. The subordinate importance of structural teaching of language. The speech act theory showed that we do something when we speak a language.
We use language cf Halliday to get things, to create interaction with others, to express personal feelings, to create a world of imagination, to communicate information.
They described two kinds of meanings.
One language competence or numerous competences? For Chomsky the focus of linguistics was to describe the linguistic competence that enables speakers to produce grammatically correct sentences.
He advocated the need of a theory that incorporate communication competence. It must be a definition of what a speaker needs to know in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community. Later Canale and Swaine described four dimensions of communicative competence.
Stephen Krashen later advocated in his language learning theory that there should be a distinction between learning and acquiring. He sees acquisition as the basic process involved in developing language proficiency and distinguishes this process from learning.
Acquisition is an unconscious process that involves the naturalistic development of language proficiency while learning is the conscious internalization of the rules of language. It results in explicit knowledge about the forms of language and the ability to verbalize this knowledge.
|Communicative language teaching - Wikipedia||Blog Communicative Competence Communicative Competence If a language learner is asked what they think the goal of a language course is, they would probably answer that it is to teach the grammar and vocabulary of that language.|
|Lesson 1: Defining Communication||Societal influences[ edit ] Language teaching was originally considered a cognitive matter, mainly involving memorization.|
|Societal influences[ edit ] Language teaching was originally considered a cognitive matter, mainly involving memorization.|
|Communicative language teaching - Wikipedia||
Learning according to Krashen can not lead to acquisition. Syllabus Communicative language teaching syllabus organizes the teaching according to the notional and functional categories of language rather than according to its structures.
It concentrates on the following: Merits of CLT There are many advantages in teaching according to the communicative approach: CLT is a holistic approach.
It takes into consideration communicative dimension of language. CLT provides vitality and motivation within the classroom. CLT is a learner centered approach. It capitalizes on the interests and needs of the learner. In a world where communication of information and information technology have broken new considerable ground, CLT can play an important role in education.
Criticism Notional syllabus was criticized as merely replacing one kind of list, namely a list of grammatical structures, with another list of notions and functions. The various categories of language functions are overlapping and not systematically graded like the structures of the language.
The communicative approach focuses on the use of language in everyday situations, or the functional aspects of language, and less on the formal structures. There must be a certain balance between the two. It gives priority to meanings and rules of use rather than to grammar and rules of structure.
Such concentration on language behavior may result in negative consequences in the sense that important structures and rules would be left out. The approach relies extensively on the functional-notational syllabus which places heavy demands on the learners.
This implies that every teacher should modify the syllabus to fit the needs of the learners. The requirements are difficult. Not all classrooms can allow for group work activities and for teaching aids and materials.
In spite of its critics, CLT has gained widespread acceptance in the world of language study. CLT, in the hands of a balanced teacher, can bring new life and joy to the classroom.Communicative Competence.
In , the applied linguists Canale and Swain published an influential article in which they argued that the ability to communicate required four different sub-competencies. Canale and Swain () defined it as composing competence in four areas: Words and rules; Appropriacy; Cohesion and coherence; Use of communication strategies Example The aim of communicative language teaching and the communicative approach is communicative competence.
In the classroom Testing communicative competence is challenging. Consequently, the concern for teaching linguistic competence has widened to include communicative competence, the socially appropriate use of language, and .
Communicative Competence Communicative language teaching involves developing language proficiency through interactions embedded in meaningful contexts.
This approach to teaching provides authentic opportunities for learning that go beyond repetition and .
language teaching that would reflect an underlying construct of communicative competence is best gained against a backdrop of the established methodology of the midth century. In the s, linguists at the University of Michigan were engaged in developing materials for teaching English to international students studying in the United States.
Communicative Language Teaching Today 3 competence refers to the knowledge we have of a language that accounts for our ability to produce sentences in a language.