Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, and Lynn Larsen This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills:
Prewriting Strategies Pre-writing strategies use writing to generate and clarify ideas. While many writers have traditionally created outlines before beginning writing, there are other possible prewriting activities. Jot down all the possible terms that emerge from the general topic you are thinking about.
This procedure works especially well if you work in a team. All team members can generate ideas, with one member acting as scribe. Simply write down a lot of possibilities. Group the items that you have listed according to arrangements that make sense to you.
Give each group a label. Now you have a topic with possible points of development. Write a sentence about the label you have given the group of ideas. Now you have a topic sentence or cluster writing activities a thesis statement.
Clustering Clustering is also called mind mapping or idea mapping. It is a strategy that allows you to explore the relationships between ideas. Put the subject in the center of a page. Circle or underline it.
As you think of other ideas, link the new ideas to the central circle with lines. As you think of ideas that relate to the new ideas, add to those in the same way. The result will look like a web on your page.
Locate clusters of interest to you, and use the terms you attached to the key ideas as departure points for your paper. Clustering is especially useful in determining the relationship between ideas.
You will be able to distinguish how the ideas fit together, especially where there is an abundance of ideas. Clustering your ideas lets you see them visually in a different way, so that you can more readily understand possible directions your paper may take.
Freewriting Free-writing is a process of generating a lot of information by writing non-stop.
It allows you to focus on a specific topic, but forces you to write so quickly that you are unable to edit any of your ideas. Free-write on the assignment or general topic for several minutes non-stop. Force yourself to continue writing even if nothing specific comes to mind.
This free-writing will include many ideas; at this point, generating ideas is what is important, not the grammar or the spelling. You will narrow your topic and, in the process, you will generate several relevant points about the topic.
Looping Looping is a free-writing technique that allows you to increasingly focus your ideas in trying to discover a writing topic. You loop one minute free-writing after another, so you have a sequence of free-writings, each more specific than the other.
The same rules that apply to free-writing apply to looping: Free-write on an assignment for minutes. Then, read through your free-writing, looking for interesting topics, ideas, phrases, or sentences. Circle those you find interesting.Closing date: Application: Apply for the job Organization: Danish Refugee Council Country: Ethiopia Closing date: 30 Nov Overall purpose of the role.
In September , a regional Protection Cluster was launched in the Somali region of Ethiopia with the aim of coordinating and enhancing humanitarian protection efforts within the region. Definitions and examples of prewriting steps of brainstorming, clustering, and questioning BRAINSTORMING – Prewriting technique of focusing on a particular subject or topic freely writing down ideas, words, phrases, details, examples, feelings, situations, descriptions, etc.
Do not limit or censor ideas – if you think it, write it!
Below is an example of a cluster based on last week’s lesson on the writing process: Like freewriting, clustering allows the creative side of your brain to run wild, enabling you to get related ideas out in the open where you can then begin selecting, deleting, and arranging them into a plan for your actual paper.
Cluster/Cloud Diagrams. Cluster diagrams (also called cloud diagrams) are a type of non-linear graphic organizer that can help to systematize the generation of ideas based upon a central topic.
Using this type of diagram, the student can more easily brainstorm a theme, associate about an idea, or explore a new subject. Writing in journals can be a powerful strategy for students to respond to literature, gain writing fluency, dialogue in writing with another student or the teacher, or write in the content areas.
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