This pattern is repeated throughout Africa and Asia in general. Comparative costs - comparative advantage As discussed in chapter one, price has been called the immediate basis for international trade - cheaper prices based on different cost structures, especially labour. Countries trade because they produce and export goods in which they enjoy a greater comparative advantage and import goods in which they have a least comparative advantage.
From this week, the Zimbabwe Independent will serialise an article by Research and Advocacy Unit titled Framing the debate: Africa has a youthful population with approximately one-third of its population belonging to the 15 to 35 years age category.
Youth bulges are theorised to be a potential source of instability. Democratic elections and sound policies may be a way in which the deleterious effects of youth bulges may be mitigated.
It appears Zimbabwe is perpetually in election mode, with people focussing on elections in their search for improvements in how the country is governed. It is theorised that democratic governments led by winners of competitive elections are more effective, responsive and accountable than those that rise to power though modalities outside elections.
In response to political violence and other informal sanctions, the youth often actively avoid participation to safeguard their informal enterprises. A long-standing question in governance discourse is: Under what conditions does citizen action contribute to more responsive states, pro-poor policies and greater social justice?
The Zimbabwean populace is faced with high unemployment and under-employment, an unresponsive government, social injustice and deepening poverty, while the youth are faced with poor governance and weak political participation, lack of livelihood opportunities, perennial relegation to low-paying menial jobs that offer restricted room for career advancement, massive migration, the politics of exclusion in the economy, ever-increasing graft and systematic corruption in government and parastatals.
Youth engagement The space for citizens to engage the state in dialogue is continuously shrinking through the systematic intimidation, politics of patronage and neo-patrimonialism, in which elected leaders are more concerned with using state resources to create and sustain clientilism and loyalty networks based around personal material benefit.
Under neo-patrimonialism the media and oversight institutions such as the police, courts and parliament become weak due to the illicit administrative practices that go unchecked. The current drive to encourage youth to vote reflects this belief in elections as the best way available for the citizenry to contribute to the governance of the country.
It also emerges from the need to harvest maximum participation from the youth bulge to address youth exclusion, youth apathy and a way for the youth to determine their future.
Perceptions of exclusion lead young people to search for alternative ways to engage the state and express their discontentment. The protests and demonstrations met with some expectedly brutal police reaction in a continuation of the theme of police heavy-handedness and repression of free expression.
However, against this hopeful scenario are the lessons of and previous elections since Embedded in such sentiments is the view that people should not only speak out on social media and then neglect to vote, which is the only action that has a chance to lead to some of the desired outcomes. As one commentator has expressed: We have watched our beloved country become an example of a failed state.
Today I will not write about unfulfilled promises, the corruption, the looting by our unyouthful leadership and they have used us, we all know this has happened. Let us youths pave the way for a new Zimbabwe. Let us register to vote and actively participate in Zimbabwean election.
I rest my case. Failure to register as a voter means that someone cannot vote. Ensuring that the roll is complete and that all eligible voters are registered, the voter registration process must uphold democratic principles such as transparency, inclusiveness, accountability and comprehensiveness.
The allegations of partiality of the judicial system and the inexplicably long time in which the judicial system takes to hear election cases, becomes another key factor hindering acceptance of the elections results.
There is a long history in Zimbabwe of election petitions being brought to the courts, dismissed without judgement, as was the case for the presidential election, or the process delayed until the petition was no longer relevant, as was the case with the petitions from the elections, and never mind the opposition winning the election in and failing to ascend to power.
The youth need government to respect other democratic principles beyond elections. As it is, democracy and development are erroneously tied to elections. In reality, Zimbabwean citizens have in the past and still continue to ask if the conditions for democracy to thrive are present simply because elections are held regularly.
Elections do not wholly equate to democracy and the realities of past Zimbabwean elections have shown that not every vote actually counts in the final analysis due to voter intimidation, politically motivated violence, assisted voters, and special votes among other voting malpractices.
Political parties actively participate in fanning violence, inducing fear in the citizenry and fuelling voter apathy. There is a need to build and harness young people as assets, to reinforce their capacity to participate as integral components of national development and governance processes.
The youth voter registration drive is seen as a precondition for drawing on the benefits of the youth bulge. Government has been condemned for not respecting the rule of law and for presiding over elections characterised by voter intimidation, violence and other irregularities that prevent the elections from being free, fair, or credible and reflective of the wishes of the people.“T his is the way the world ends,” wrote T S Eliot in “The Hollow Men”.
“Not with a bang but a whimper”. Well the world didn’t come to an end in Zimbabwe on 21 November , when Robert Mugabe resigned as president.
The Zimbabwe Electoral Commission says 60% of registered voters in the upcoming general elections expected in July are 40 years and below, meaning the youth vote will play a decisive role in the poll outcomes. From this week, the Zimbabwe Independent will serialise an article by Research and.
The chapter starts off with a review of the global economy, the composition of world trade and the World Trade Institutions. Regionalism is a major phenomenon of the late 80s and early 90s and so the chapter describes in detail a number of major regional economic blocs.
Very important in any. Economic inequality covers a wide variety of topics. It can refer to either income distribution, measuring the amount of money people are paid, or the distribution of wealth, which captures the amount of wealth people timberdesignmag.comlity among nations is covered in international inequality and countries listed by income timberdesignmag.com the United States, see United States income inequality, United.
The hegemonic stability theories seem to have been backed by evidence of the early phase of the post-World War 2 period in which the U.S. was able to push the former European imperial powers to accept a multilateral economic system, which existed beside the United Nations system, with the U.S.
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